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Saturday, December 13

  1. page Li Hongzhang edited ... Li Hongzhang was a Chinese general, administrator, and diplomat who had a strong hand in the l…
    ...
    Li Hongzhang was a Chinese general, administrator, and diplomat who had a strong hand in the late Qing period of Chinese history.
    With the blessing of the Manchu court, Li organized the Huai Army in 1862 to fight in the Taiping Rebellion. His forces participated in several key battles, including the 1864 siege of Nanking, the Taiping capital. For Li's services, he was made governor-general of Kiangsu province in 1865. Li was later appointed the viceroy of Chihli province and superintendent of of trade for the northern ports in 1870. Li was the strongest advocate of military modernization in China based on western models, what became known as the Self-Strengthening movement. He organized the Nanking Arsenal in 1867, the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company in 1872, a naval and an army academy in Tientsin in 1800 and 1885, and the Peiyand fleet in 1888. He contracted foreign officers like "Chinese" Gordon to train soldiers in artillery, "matchless weapons for offensive and defensive in the whole world" (Hsu 279). The Sino-Japanese War served as a referendum of sorts on Li and on the Self-Strengthening movement. His Huai Army was crushed at P'yongyang and his Peiyang feet suffered grievous losses and casualties at Yau River. To add insult to injury, the Japanese occupied the base Li conceived at Weihaiwei and turned its guns on Chinese targets. Because of Li's transparent failure, he was dismissed from most of his posts in 1895. Having faced opposition from conservative elements of society and government all along, his overshadowing by figures like Chang Chih-tung and Weng T'ung-ho was now complete.
    ...
    Qing government by forcing it to jettison
    ...
    western-open viewpoint long excluded from imperial policy. that if included in imperial policy-making could have kept the Boxer Rebellion flaredfrom flaring from an
    ...
    war on foreigners
    ability
    foreigners. That he was able to take a stand againstso easily defy imperial orders reflected a severe weakening of the authority the Qing authority provinces
    Li's Huai army forerunner of
    court could exert on the provinces. Personal militaries like Li's anticipated the private armies that power base of warlords the powers of later periods Chinese history
    leadres - officers - footman allegiances
    personalities backed by armies
    militias taking over from Green Standard Army, Banners
    protecting the throne, suppressing rebellions
    China's 20th century warlords.
    Chesneaux, Jean, Bastid, Marianne, and Bergere, Marie-Claire. China: From the Opium Wars to the 1911 Revolution. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
    Hsu, Immanuel C.Y. The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    (view changes)
    8:11 pm
  2. page Li Hongzhang edited ... Li Hongzhang was a Chinese general, administrator, and diplomat who had a strong hand in the l…
    ...
    Li Hongzhang was a Chinese general, administrator, and diplomat who had a strong hand in the late Qing period of Chinese history.
    With the blessing of the Manchu court, Li organized the Huai Army in 1862 to fight in the Taiping Rebellion. His forces participated in several key battles, including the 1864 siege of Nanking, the Taiping capital. For Li's services, he was made governor-general of Kiangsu province in 1865. Li was later appointed the viceroy of Chihli province and superintendent of of trade for the northern ports in 1870. Li was the strongest advocate of military modernization in China based on western models, what became known as the Self-Strengthening movement. He organized the Nanking Arsenal in 1867, the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company in 1872, a naval and an army academy in Tientsin in 1800 and 1885, and the Peiyand fleet in 1888. He contracted foreign officers like "Chinese" Gordon to train soldiers in artillery, "matchless weapons for offensive and defensive in the whole world" (Hsu 279). The Sino-Japanese War served as a referendum of sorts on Li and on the Self-Strengthening movement. His Huai Army was crushed at P'yongyang and his Peiyang feet suffered grievous losses and casualties at Yau River. To add insult to injury, the Japanese occupied the base Li conceived at Weihaiwei and turned its guns on Chinese targets. Because of Li's transparent failure, he was dismissed from most of his posts in 1895. Having faced opposition from conservative elements of society and government all along, his overshadowing by figures like Chang Chih-tung and Weng T'ung-ho was now complete.
    ...
    and sound.
    petitioned Jung-lu re-join Grand Council (Nov 11)
    Allied representatives demanded "return of court" return of emperor
    Li managed to power (Hsu399)
    Empress fears untoward treatment grossly unjust terms
    SE ministers shifting attention
    soothe foreign antagonism by forcing the Qing government by forcing it to punishing guilty ministers
    pers punsish 9 pro-Boxer ministers Yu-hsien
    jettison and Tung Fu-hsiang (legation attacker)
    no mention Dowager, Jung-lu
    present at
    heavily punish its most guilty ministers. Li was one of the signingtwo Chinese signatories of the Protocol of 1901.
    represented
    1901, which ended hostilities.
    Li Hongzhang represented
    a moderate, conciliatorywestern-open viewpoint long excluded from imperial decision-makingpolicy. that Boxer Rebellion flared from an internal matter into a war on foreigners
    ability to take a stand against imperial orders weakening of the Qing authority provinces
    Li's Huai army forerunner of private armies that power base of warlords the powers of later periods Chinese history
    (view changes)
    8:01 pm
  3. page Li Hongzhang edited ... {LiHungChang.jpg} Li Hongzhang central government control of provinces weakened by Taiping…
    ...
    {LiHungChang.jpg}
    Li Hongzhang
    central government control of provinces weakened by Taiping Rebellion
    mainly concerned with receiving its due
    Li Hongzhang was a Chinese general, administrator, and diplomat who had a strong hand in taxes
    personalities backed by armies
    militias taking over from Green Standard Army, Banners
    protecting
    the throne, suppressing rebellions
    At
    late Qing period of Chinese history.
    With
    the insistenceblessing of the
    ...
    Taiping Rebellion.
    His
    His forces participated
    ...
    Taiping capital.
    For
    For Li's services,
    ...
    in 1865.
    Nian 1868
    viceroy
    Li was later appointed the viceroy of Zhili 1870-1895
    Li
    Chihli province and superintendent of of trade for the northern ports in 1870. Li was the
    ...
    modernization in China,China based on western models, what became
    ...
    in 1888.
    foreign
    He contracted foreign officers Wardlike "Chinese" Gordon
    Western cannon and explosive shells
    to train soldiers in artillery, "matchless weapons
    ...
    world" (Hsu 279)
    "a totally unprecedented situation in its three thousand years
    279). The Sino-Japanese War served as a referendum of history" (Hsu 280)
    opposition from conservative Confucian society
    sorts on Li and officialdom ex Wo-jen
    "foreign matters" (yang wu) (Hsu 281) in China v qingliu "purification" (Chesneaux 167)
    negotiatied Sino-French 1885
    His diplomatic style failed him in opening of
    on the Sino-Japanese war, delaying Chinese military preparation.Self-Strengthening movement. His Huai
    ...
    the base Li conceived at Weihaiwei
    ...
    Chinese targets.
    The Sino-Japanese War, ending with the Treaty
    Because of ShimonosekiLi's transparent failure, he was dismissed from most of his posts in 1895, brought disgrace to Li1895. Having faced opposition from conservative elements of society and disrepute to the Self-Strengthening movement.
    Politicaly, he was overshadowed
    government all along, his overshadowing by more conservative figures like
    ...
    and Weng T'ung-ho.
    cong party Liaotung peninsula Russia Japan
    waning of Zongli Yamen 1869-70 gov-gen Chihli superintenent of trade three northern ports Tientsin getting foreigners out of capital
    Russo-Chinese treaty of 1896
    stiff terms in spite of possible bribe
    T'ung-ho was now complete.
    Li was among the southeastern provincial authorities who refused to recognizeignored the Manchu
    ...
    war on foreigners in June 21,of 1900.
    He
    He creatively interpreted the June 20 imperial edict saying that viceroys
    ...
    as a
    informal pact with foreign consuls at Shanhai
    call to protectsuppress the Boxers. In doing this, Li was able to ensure the safety of foreign livespeople and propertiesproperty and suppress Boxers in territiries in returntherefore obviate the need for no foreign invasions
    luan-ming "illegitimate order" (396)
    urging
    intervention in his territory. He urged the same behavior on the court
    July 18 ordered by court to ask Chinese diplomats abroad to inform resp. governments that their reps in Peking wre safe.
    radical voices won out
    less powerful individuals behaving as LI did were executed
    Li
    imperial court, but radical xenophobes like Li Ping-heng imperial inspector ofand Tuan Kang-i had Ci Xi's ear. In July, the Yangtze naval forces "only when one can fight can one negotiate for peace" (Purcell257)
    after math as gov-gen canton
    July 3 6 Xi'an exiled court said
    chastened Manchu government, from its self-imposed exile at Xi'an, asked Li to come north
    July 8 re-appt gov-gen Chihli superint trade norther ports 1870-1895
    July 21 sailed for Shanghai
    waited ffor foreign ministers
    to safely reach Tientsin
    August 7 court appt plenipotentiary negotiator
    August 20 court admits responsibility "begged" him
    and negotiate with the foreigners. It even restored his titles to gothe governor-generalship of Chihli and the superintendency of trade of the northern ports. Li waited to Peking to seek settlement
    Li delayed b/c believed
    go until August, when the court would not follow recommend to supp Boxers; no prospect for peace unless siege of legatiosn liftenadmitted its complicity in the Boxer Rebellion and word reached him that the foreign ministers givenwere safe conduct to Tientsin
    reassurances from Russia moderation went
    arrived September in September 18
    court still under inf of reactionaries; Prince Tuan Kang-i fav war of attrition
    and sound.
    petitioned Jung-lu re-join Grand Council (Nov 11)
    Allied representatives demanded "return of court" return of emperor to power (Hsu399)
    ...
    no mention Dowager, Jung-lu
    present at the signing of the Protocol of 1901.
    Hunan and Haui armeis forerunnersrepresented a moderate, conciliatory excluded from imperial decision-making Boxer Rebellion
    ability to take a stand against imperial orders weakening of the Qing authority provinces
    Li's Huai army forerunner
    of private armies that characterized thepower base of warlords the powers of later periods
    officers on bases of common provincial origin, common scholastic background, relatives and friends, teachers and students
    soldiers raised and trained by
    Chinese history
    leadres -
    officers owed undivided allegiance- footman allegiances
    personalities backed by armies
    militias taking over from Green Standard Army, Banners
    protecting the throne, suppressing rebellions

    Chesneaux, Jean, Bastid, Marianne, and Bergere, Marie-Claire. China: From the Opium Wars to the 1911 Revolution. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
    Hsu, Immanuel C.Y. The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    (view changes)
    7:52 pm
  4. page The Relief Expedition of Admiral Seymour edited ... {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif} The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour ...…
    ...
    {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif}
    The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour
    ...
    around them. In 17 days (June 10 to June 28), Seymour's men saw 14 days of battle, with 62 dead and 228 wounded.
    On May 28, Sir Claude McDonald, the ranking British diplomat in Peking, telegraphed Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, commander of the British navy in China, that “the Boxers were troublesome and a guard was wanted” (Purcell 59). Seymour's personnel received a second telegram on June 9 stating that "unless Peking was relieved it would be too late" (Preston 90). On June 10, a British expedition under Seymour maneuvered past the Taku forts and ships to land at Tongku, from which it rode a train to Tientsin. In Tientsin, Seymour's ranks swelled to more than 2,000 with men from Russia, France, Germany, America, Austria, Italy, and Japan. They boarded a train to Peking, and all went well until they neared Lofa, when they had to contend with Boxer rail sabotage. On June 11, the expedition was attacked by Boxers for the first time en route to Langfang: "They came on us in a ragged line, advancing at the double... Not more than a couple of hundred, armed with swords, spears, gingalls... and rifles, many of them being quite boys. To anyone who had been some little time in China it was an almost incredible sight, for there was no sign of fear of hesitation, and these were not fanatical 'braves', or the trained soldiers of the Empress, but the quiet peace-loving peasantry - the countryside in arms against the foreigner" (Preston 94). The soldiers passed the next five days stopping to repair rails and fending off Boxers. Tanks of water needed for the locomotive and for the men were being destroyed; scouts were sent out ahead of the train. On June 14, contact with Tientsin was lost and supplies were halted back at Yangtsun. One June 15, Boxer resistence stiffened. On June 16, the expedition backtracked to Lofa in order to restore communication with Tientsin, only to finding extensively damaged tracks. Seymour acknowledged: "we were now isolated, with no transport or means to advance, and cut off from our base behind" (Preston 96). Plans were drawn: a German, Captain von Usedom, would hold Lanfang while Seymour and the bulk of the force made their way, trains or not, back to Yangtsun. Usedom fell under attack by 5,000 Kansu imperial troops under Tung Fu-Hsiang, suffering 12 losses and more than 50 wounded, but retreated and joined Seymour in Yangtsun on June 18. On June 19, commandeering Chinese junks to carry wounded and equipment down the Peiho River, they set out back to Tientsin on foot, imperial troops on their backs, battling heat, hunger, and a Boxer presence in village after village. On June 22, Seymour and his men stumbled across the Hsiku Arsenal and took it after intense but brief fighting. Inside were copious supplies of armaments, rice, and medical supplies. For the next two days, they endured attacks from imperials and Boxers. On June 24, a Chinese servant swam, brushed with Boxers and imperials, and dodged the bullets of a French outpost before finally bringing word to allies in Tientsin on the status of Seymour's expedition. On June 25, a multinational relief force of 1,800 led by Sherinsky, a Russian, arrived at Hsiku. On June 28, the two armies destroyed what they couldn't carry and marched uneventfully back to a Tientsin now under siege itself.
    In seventeen days, Seymour's men had seen fourteen days of battle, with 62 dead and 228 wounded. Seymour,Seymour, having failed
    Preston, Diana. The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners that Shook the World in the Summer of 1900. New York: Walker & Company, 2000.
    Purcell, Victor. The Boxer Uprising: A Background Study. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
    (view changes)
    6:47 pm
  5. page The Relief Expedition of Admiral Seymour edited ... {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif} The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour The…
    ...
    {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif}
    The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour
    The relief expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour was a early, multinational military action that attempted unsuccessfully to come to the protection of British and other diplomats in Peking before the Boxers closed around them.
    On May 28, Sir Claude McDonald, the ranking British diplomat in Peking, telegraphed Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, commander of the British navy in China, that “the Boxers were troublesome and a guard was wanted” (Purcell 59). Seymour's personnel received a second telegram on June 9 stating that "unless Peking was relieved it would be too late" (Preston 90). On June 10, a British expedition under Seymour maneuvered past the Taku forts and ships to land at Tongku, from which it rode a train to Tientsin. In Tientsin, Seymour's ranks swelled to more than 2,000 with men from Russia, France, Germany, America, Austria, Italy, and Japan. They boarded a train to Peking, and all went well until they neared Lofa, when they had to contend with Boxer rail sabotage. On June 11, the expedition was attacked by Boxers for the first time en route to Langfang: "They came on us in a ragged line, advancing at the double... Not more than a couple of hundred, armed with swords, spears, gingalls... and rifles, many of them being quite boys. To anyone who had been some little time in China it was an almost incredible sight, for there was no sign of fear of hesitation, and these were not fanatical 'braves', or the trained soldiers of the Empress, but the quiet peace-loving peasantry - the countryside in arms against the foreigner" (Preston 94). The soldiers passed the next five days stopping to repair rails and fending off Boxers. Tanks of water needed for the locomotive and for the men were being destroyed; scouts were sent out ahead of the train. On June 14, contact with Tientsin was lost and supplies were halted back at Yangtsun. One June 15, Boxer resistence stiffened. On June 16, the expedition backtracked to Lofa in order to restore communication with Tientsin, only to finding extensively damaged tracks. Seymour acknowledged: "we were now isolated, with no transport or means to advance, and cut off from our base behind" (Preston 96). Plans were drawn: a German, Captain von Usedom, would hold Lanfang while Seymour and the bulk of the force made their way, trains or not, back to Yangtsun. Usedom fell under attack by 5,000 Kansu imperial troops under Tung Fu-Hsiang, suffering 12 losses and more than 50 wounded, but retreated and joined Seymour in Yangtsun on June 18. On June 19, commandeering Chinese junks to carry wounded and equipment down the Peiho River, they set out back to Tientsin on foot, imperial troops on their backs, battling heat, hunger, and a Boxer presence in village after village. On June 22, Seymour and his men stumbled across the Hsiku Arsenal and took it after intense but brief fighting. Inside were copious supplies of armaments, rice, and medical supplies. For the next two days, they endured attacks from imperials and Boxers. On June 24, a Chinese servant swam, brushed with Boxers and imperials, and dodged the bullets of a French outpost before finally bringing word to allies in Tientsin on the status of Seymour's expedition. On June 25, a multinational relief force of 1,800 led by Sherinsky, a Russian, arrived at Hsiku. On June 28, the two armies destroyed what they couldn't carry and marched uneventfully back to a Tientsin now under siege itself.
    In seventeen days, Seymour's men had seen fourteen days of battle, with 62 dead and 228 wounded. Seymour, having failed to reach Peking in time to prevent the June 20 legation siege, was remembered as "Admiral Seen-no-more" (Preston 89). However, train was by far the fastest means of getting to Peking 80 miles away and would have, and under more favorable circumstances would have taken Seymour only hours. To proceed further on foot, in an environment rich with vastly larger numbers of Boxers and hostile imperials, would have been suicide. Conversely, Seymour also endured criticism for acting too quickly, before he could muster could secure the formal consent of London or the permission of the Qing government. However, events parallel to Seymour's expedition would seem to have justified his urgency; for instance, on June 10, the day after McDonald's distress call, the telegraph line from Peking to Tientsin was cut and the British summer legation was torched. The second expedition to Peking, which also drew from a coalition of 8 foreign powers but dwarfed Seymour's attempt in numbers, was ultimately successful.
    (view changes)
    6:45 pm
  6. page The Relief Expedition of Admiral Seymour edited ... The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour On May 28, Sir Claude McDonald, the ranking Bri…
    ...
    The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour
    On May 28, Sir Claude McDonald, the ranking British diplomat in Peking, telegraphed Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, commander of the British navy in China, that “the Boxers were troublesome and a guard was wanted” (Purcell 59). Seymour's personnel received a second telegram on June 9 stating that "unless Peking was relieved it would be too late" (Preston 90). On June 10, a British expedition under Seymour maneuvered past the Taku forts and ships to land at Tongku, from which it rode a train to Tientsin. In Tientsin, Seymour's ranks swelled to more than 2,000 with men from Russia, France, Germany, America, Austria, Italy, and Japan. They boarded a train to Peking, and all went well until they neared Lofa, when they had to contend with Boxer rail sabotage. On June 11, the expedition was attacked by Boxers for the first time en route to Langfang: "They came on us in a ragged line, advancing at the double... Not more than a couple of hundred, armed with swords, spears, gingalls... and rifles, many of them being quite boys. To anyone who had been some little time in China it was an almost incredible sight, for there was no sign of fear of hesitation, and these were not fanatical 'braves', or the trained soldiers of the Empress, but the quiet peace-loving peasantry - the countryside in arms against the foreigner" (Preston 94). The soldiers passed the next five days stopping to repair rails and fending off Boxers. Tanks of water needed for the locomotive and for the men were being destroyed; scouts were sent out ahead of the train. On June 14, contact with Tientsin was lost and supplies were halted back at Yangtsun. One June 15, Boxer resistence stiffened. On June 16, the expedition backtracked to Lofa in order to restore communication with Tientsin, only to finding extensively damaged tracks. Seymour acknowledged: "we were now isolated, with no transport or means to advance, and cut off from our base behind" (Preston 96). Plans were drawn: a German, Captain von Usedom, would hold Lanfang while Seymour and the bulk of the force made their way, trains or not, back to Yangtsun. Usedom fell under attack by 5,000 Kansu imperial troops under Tung Fu-Hsiang, suffering 12 losses and more than 50 wounded, but retreated and joined Seymour in Yangtsun on June 18. On June 19, commandeering Chinese junks to carry wounded and equipment down the Peiho River, they set out back to Tientsin on foot, imperial troops on their backs, battling heat, hunger, and a Boxer presence in village after village. On June 22, Seymour and his men stumbled across the Hsiku Arsenal and took it after intense but brief fighting. Inside were copious supplies of armaments, rice, and medical supplies. For the next two days, they endured attacks from imperials and Boxers. On June 24, a Chinese servant swam, brushed with Boxers and imperials, and dodged the bullets of a French outpost before finally bringing word to allies in Tientsin on the status of Seymour's expedition. On June 25, a multinational relief force of 1,800 led by Sherinsky, a Russian, arrived at Hsiku. On June 28, the two armies destroyed what they couldn't carry and marched uneventfully back to a Tientsin now under siege itself.
    ...
    228 wounded.
    Seymour,
    Seymour, having failed
    ...
    (Preston 89).
    However,
    However, train was
    ...
    an environment swelledrich with vastly
    ...
    before he could muster could secure
    ...
    Seymour's expedition would seem to justifyhave justified his urgency;
    ...
    was torched. The second expedition to Peking, which also drew from a coalition of 8 foreign powers but dwarfed Seymour's attempt in numbers, was ultimately successful.
    Preston, Diana. The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners that Shook the World in the Summer of 1900. New York: Walker & Company, 2000.
    Purcell, Victor. The Boxer Uprising: A Background Study. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
    (view changes)
    6:41 pm
  7. page The Relief Expedition of Admiral Seymour edited ... {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif} The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour ...…
    ...
    {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif}
    The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour
    ...
    from which theit rode a
    ...
    had to
    Boxer
    contend with Boxer rail sabotage.
    On
    On June 11,
    ...
    first time en route to Langfang: "They came on us in a ragged line, advancing at the way to Langfang
    Langfang Boxer attack
    rails
    double... Not more than a couple of hundred, armed with swords, spears, gingalls... and bridges, cont'd.
    water tanks destroyed
    rifles, many of them being quite boys. To anyone who had been some little time in China it was an almost incredible sight, for there was no sign of fear of hesitation, and these were not fanatical 'braves', or the trained soldiers of the Empress, but the quiet peace-loving peasantry - the countryside in arms against the foreigner" (Preston 94). The soldiers passed the next five days stopping to repair rails and fending off Boxers. Tanks of water needed for locomotivesthe locomotive and for the men
    men
    were being destroyed; scouts were sent out ahead to scout along tracks
    five days trying to repair line, fend
    On
    of the train. On June 14,
    ...
    at Yangtsun. One June 15, Boxer resistence stiffened. On June
    ...
    the expedition went in force backbacktracked to Lofa in order to restore communication with TientsinTientsin, only to
    ...
    tracks. Seymour acknowleged:acknowledged: "we were
    ...
    than 50 casualties,wounded, but retreated
    ...
    word to allies in Tientsin on
    ...
    siege itself.
    In seventeen days, Seymour's men had seen fourteen days of battle, with 62 dead and 228 wounded.
    Seymour, having failed to reach Peking in time to prevent the June 20 legation siege, was remembered as "Admiral Seen-no-more" (Preston 89).
    However, train was by far the fastest means of getting to Peking 80 miles away and would have, and under more favorable circumstances would have taken Seymour only hours. To proceed further on foot, in an environment swelled with vastly larger numbers of Boxers and hostile imperials, would have been suicide. Conversely, Seymour also endured criticism for acting too quickly, before he could secure the formal consent of London or the permission of the Qing government. However, events parallel to Seymour's expedition seem to justify his urgency; for instance, on June 10, the day after McDonald's distress call, the telegraph line from Peking to Tientsin was cut and the British summer legation was torched.

    Preston, Diana. The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners that Shook the World in the Summer of 1900. New York: Walker & Company, 2000.
    Purcell, Victor. The Boxer Uprising: A Background Study. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
    (view changes)
    6:32 pm
  8. page The Relief Expedition of Admiral Seymour edited ... {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif} The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour ...…
    ...
    {EdwardHobartSeymour.jpg} {figure3.gif}
    The Relief Expedition of Vice-Admiral Seymour
    ...
    ranking British diplomat,diplomat in Peking, telegraphed Vice-Admiral
    ...
    navy in ChinaChina, that
    “the
    “the Boxers were
    ...
    was wanted” (Preston(Purcell 59).
    May 31 further alarm
    Sailed up China choast Russia, Fr, Grm, Am, Aust, It, Japan Taku
    Senior officer Allied naval brigade
    Served in China campaign of 1860
    British commanding officers
    4 June twenty four men of war at Taku inc Br Fr Jap Aust
    6 June ordered Aurora Phoenix to Shanhaiwan reports of Europeans murdered rising anti-foreign feeling
    9 June chief of staff Captain John Jellicoe from Tientsin “found that
    Seymour's personnel received a second telegram had just arrievedon June 9 stating that the [British] Minister had just wired that unless"unless Peking was
    ...
    be too late….I at once told [HMS] Algerine to flash off to the flagship ‘Serious news, prepare landing parties.’” (90)
    left Tientsin by train with 300 British, 100 American, 60 Austrian and 40 Italian troops
    riots
    10
    late" (Preston 90). On June 10, a British summer legation burnt
    On June 10, they
    expedition under Seymour maneuvered past
    ...
    ships to land at Tongku, from
    ...
    to Tientsin.
    2100? 900 British?
    13 June 1876
    In Tientsin, Seymour's ranks swelled to more than 2,000 with men
    15
    from Russia, France, Germany, America, Austria, Italy, and Japan. They boarded a train to Peking, and all went well until they neared Lofa, when they had to
    Boxer rail sabotage.
    On
    June 11, the expedition was attacked by large force Boxers
    18 June collided with Nieh Shih-ch'eng front division Tun Fu-hsiang rear division fell back to Tientsin
    Shortly after a telegram reached
    for the legatiosnfirst time on 10 June confirming that forces under Vice-Admiral Seymour were on their way, the telegraph line to Tientsin was cut.
    train the fastest
    way to reach Peking 80 miles away
    Yangtsen
    Nearing Lofa station rails, Seymour bridge out
    dead
    approaching
    Langfang
    Langfang
    Boxer attack
    rails and bridges, cont'd.
    water tanks destroyed - needed for locomotives and men
    men sent ahead to scout along tracks
    ...
    line, fend off Boxers
    On June 14, contact with Tientsin was lost and supplies were halted back at Yangtsun. On June 16, the expedition went in force back to Lofa to restore communication with Tientsin only to finding extensively damaged tracks. Seymour acknowleged: "we were now isolated, with no transport or means to advance, and cut off from our base behind" (Preston 96). Plans were drawn: a German, Captain von Usedom, would hold Lanfang while Seymour and the bulk of the force made their way, trains or not, back to Yangtsun. Usedom fell under attack by 5,000 Kansu imperial troops under Tung Fu-Hsiang, suffering 12 losses and more than 50 casualties, but retreated and joined Seymour in Yangtsun on June 18. On June 19, commandeering Chinese junks to carry wounded and equipment down the Peiho River, they set out back to Tientsin on foot, imperial troops on their backs, battling heat, hunger, and a Boxer presence in village after village. On June 22, Seymour and his men stumbled across the Hsiku Arsenal and took it after intense but brief fighting. Inside were copious supplies of armaments, rice, and medical supplies. For the next two days, they endured attacks from imperials and Boxers. On June 24, a Chinese servant swam, brushed with Boxers and imperials, and dodged the bullets of a French outpost before finally bringing word to Tientsin on the status of Seymour's expedition. On June 25, a multinational relief force of 1,800 led by Sherinsky, a Russian, arrived at Hsiku. On June 28, the two armies destroyed what they couldn't carry and marched uneventfully back to a Tientsin now under siege itself.
    Preston, Diana. The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners that Shook the World in the Summer of 1900. New York: Walker & Company, 2000.
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  9. page The Hundred Days edited ... On June 11, 1898, the Guanxu Emperor, nephew of Ci Xi, released an edict titled “decisions on …
    ...
    On June 11, 1898, the Guanxu Emperor, nephew of Ci Xi, released an edict titled “decisions on national affairs” (Chesneaux 321). From then until September 16, 1898, Guanxu and progressive-minded intellectuals led by Kang Youwei attempted to carry out a program of mass administrative, educational, and economic reform.
    Administratively, excess posts were aggressively weeded out. Subsidies paid to all Mancus were abolished. The Army of the Green Standard was disbanded. All officials and subjects were allowed direct access to the emperor through memorials. Plans were undertaken to beautify the capital. Plans were laid for protecting Christian missionaries. Educationally, old academies and disused temples were to be re-tasked as schools. Science and politics were to enter school curriculums and civil examinations. The examinations themselves were to be overhauled, doing away with the pedantic eight-legged essay. A university was founded at Peking University Peking University. Rewards were to be introduced to encourage new works and inventions. A new translation bureau was to be responsible for introducing foreign books. Permission was granted to found study societies and newspapers. Touring foreign countries was proposed. Economically, plans were made for preparing a budget and publishing regular government financial statements. Two general offices, resembling ministries, were formed, to supervise railways and mines, and to oversee agriculture, industry, and trade. Offices designed to regulate the economy opened in the provinces and towns were urged to form chambers of commerce. Industrial concerns, for instance railroads, were encouraged and private individuals were given permission to found arsenals.
    ...
    stature were arrested, imprisoned, dismissed, banished, and stripped of properties.dispossessed, and/or banished. Almost every
    The Hundred Days reform failed for a variety of reasons. It was ignored, delayed, or boycotted by most of the prominent officials in the central and provincial administrations. It helped them not that the Ci Xi’s own sympathies lay on the traditionalist end of the political spectrum, with figures like Wen Tung-ho and Chang Chih-tung. In their zealousness to pursue sweeping change, the reformers alienated people: established officials losing, or afraid of losing, their jobs in the spring cleaning; rising stars who had devoted their youths to studying for the old civil examinations; Manchus in hardship due to losing their government stipend; and Grand Council members marginalized by Guanxu in favor of the reformers. The reformers’ greatest mistake may have been pinning their hopes on the emperor when it was Ci Xi who held true power in China. Had the reform succeeded, its pro-Western disposition would have necessitated a more consistent policy on dealing with the Boxer Rebellion, which still being but a small nuisance in Shandong province might have been stopped, sparing the Chinese government untold humiliation.
    Chesneaux, Jean, Bastid, Marianne, and Bergere, Marie-Claire. China: From the Opium Wars to the 1911 Revolution. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
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  10. page The Relief Expedition of Admiral Seymour edited ... riots 10 June British summer legation burnt 10 he orders British landing Fame maneuvering …
    ...
    riots
    10 June British summer legation burnt
    10 he orders British landing Fame
    maneuvering through
    On June 10, they maneuvered past the Taku forts gunboats, torepedo-boats, tugs, lights, and junksships to reail terminus at TongkuTongku, from which the rode a train to Tientsin
    without formal authority "in such cases, whether success or failure attends you, England nearly always approves an officer who has evidently done
    his best." (Preston 90)
    Tientsin.
    2100? 900 British?
    Campbell Chinese interpeter
    Cliver Bigham intelligence officer mulinaional force
    not sanctioned by Chinese authorities
    cutting of the tel line
    Prince Tuan appt Zonlgi Yamen in place of moderate Prince Ching
    Bigham "Little did we think that we should never get to Peking, and that when we struggled back to Tientsin with a seventh of our force killed and wounded, the station, the settlement, and the many signs of civilization that we know saw and took pride in would be burnt and desolated ruins, riddled with shot and shell and disfigured by rotting corpses" (Preston 92)

    13 June 1876 men
    15 June attacked by large force Boxers
    ...
    dead
    approaching Langfang Boxer attack
    "They come on us in a ragged line, advancing at the double... Not more than a couple of hundred, armed with swords, spears, gingalls... and rifles, many of them being quite boys. To anyone who had been some little time in China it was an almost incredible sight, for there was no sign of fear or hesitation, and these were not fanatical 'braves', or the trained soldiers of the Empress, but the quiet peace-loving peasantry - the countryside in arms against the foreigner" (Preston 94)
    rails and bridges, cont'd.
    water tanks destroyed - needed for locomotives and men
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